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三國演繹---從品三國中學到的管理學

「當今之世,非但君則臣,臣亦擇君。」       <資治通鑑> 第四十一卷
                                                                                
                                                                               
選老闆的問題自古以來就有,前陣子看了一本書,
                                                                               
想要分享一下,諸葛亮怎麼選老闆的?
                                                                                
                                                                               
「先主遂詣亮,凡三往,乃見。」                     <三國志>
                                                                               
「先帝不以臣卑鄙,猥自枉屈,三顧臣於草廬之中。」   <前出師表>
                                                                                
                                                                               
或許這是一個再也明顯不過的問題,劉備三顧茅廬,請諸葛亮出山,
                                                                               
這不止電視上有演,電影有播,甚至電動上面的橋段都是這樣玩的,
                                                                               
這個問題不是廢話嗎?
                                                                                
                                                                               
只是,請停下來想想。縱使那個時候沒有104人力銀行,諸葛亮也知道一件事,
                                                                               
在當時劉備只是一個屢戰屢敗,打輸呂布投靠曹操,打輸曹操投靠袁紹,
                                                                               
又帶衰袁紹在官渡之戰大敗,只好落難到荊州,在劉表這裡寄人籬下的虛名皇叔,
                                                                               
而北邊曹操已自成北方一國,東有孫權初定江東,還有荊州的劉表,
                                                                               
益州的劉璋,他們也都是求才若渴,努力的招賢納士。
                                                                               
那麼,諸葛亮為什麼不去投奔曹孫二人,而偏偏挑中了這個落難皇叔?
                                                                                
                                                                               
這真是個有趣的問題。
                                                                                
                                                                               
其實諸葛丞相的深謀遠慮已在當時展現。
                                                                               
首先,諸葛亮素有大志,在年少時就已「自比管仲、樂毅」,
                                                                               
他要的不只是當個地方官做做,而是想如管仲樂毅一般做為名相名將,
 
能夠輔佐賢明君主成就帝業,定鼎中原,流芳百世。
                                                                                
                                                                               
所以在曹操跟孫權那就出現了一個問題,沒有舞台。
                                                                               
曹操那邊本來人才濟濟,當時有荀彧、郭嘉、賈翊、程昱等一流謀士,
                                                                               
另外本身曹操也是強人一名,
                                                                               
現在去曹操那邊,未必能夠如何。
                                                                               
後來魏國派遣使者來蜀國,諸葛亮向使者問起了當時在荊州一起唸書的朋友,
                                                                               
徐庶與石韜的近況,使者回答說石韜在魏為郡守,徐庶則任御史中丞,
                                                                               
諸葛亮嘆了一口氣說;「魏殊多士邪!何比二人不見用乎?」
                                                                               
(魏國真的有那麼多人才嗎!為什麼他們兩個人不被重用呢?)
                                                                                
                                                                               
而在孫權那邊,也是有同樣的問題。
 
張昭、周瑜是孫策時期創業的老臣,張昭對孫策有兄弟之誼,
                                                                               
周瑜跟孫策更有連襟之情,
                                                                               
縱使諸葛亮到了吳國,也只能排在張周二人之下。
                                                                               
在赤壁之戰前諸葛亮出使吳國時,張昭看出諸葛亮非常人也,
                                                                               
向孫權力薦諸葛亮,孫權也想留他,但遭到諸葛亮拒絕。
                                                                               
有人問他為什麼,諸葛亮說:「孫將軍可為人主,然觀其度,能賢亮而不能盡亮,吾是以不留。」
                                                                               
(孫權的確是個好老闆,但孫權至多可以做到尊重和器重,但不能使他盡顯其才。)
                                                                                
                                                                               
至於劉表與劉璋二人更是不用說,沒有宏觀的眼光,更無用人的氣度。
                                                                               
而劉備的處境則剛好符合諸葛亮的需要,
                                                                               
諸葛亮需要一個有帝王之志的人,但這樣的志向與條件均還不明顯,
 
(書中指出個有趣的問題,劉備有帝王之志怎麼知道,劉備的大兒子,是義子,
                                                                                
叫做劉封,二兒子阿斗叫劉禪,一個叫封一個叫禪,「封禪」可是只有帝王才能作的事情阿)
                                                                                
才需要個諸葛亮來當他的定鼎之臣。
                                                                                
                                                                               
其實那天那個學妹一直問我說,哪個老師脾氣比較好,
                                                                               
我不知道怎麼回答。
                                                                               
脾氣好的老師不見得跟自己就和的來,脾氣不好的老師也不一定就難相處。
                                                                               
但每個人都是需要舞台的。
                                                                               
怎麼樣挑到一個肯挺、肯栽培提攜自己的老闆,
                                                                               
這比挑一個脾氣好或是實驗室氣氛融洽的老闆,
                                                                               
還來的重要。
 
我記得有個學長曾經這樣跟我建議,
                                                                               
博士班的指導教授,最好挑一個初露頭角的助理教授,
                                                                               
這樣他才能用全副心力指導自己,與自己溝通想法與實驗技術。
                                                                               
這跟諸葛亮挑老闆的藝術,好像有些許神似之處。
                                                                                
                                                                               
祝各位都能人盡其才。
                                                                               
謝謝收看。
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